1. Plen
  2. Discurs
  3. Text

B. Literatura, Tomul XXVIII, Nr. 1, 2017

Universidad de Oviedo, España

In this article, we conduct a diachronic study of the Spanish verb, from its Latin origin to present Spanish, taking into account losses, as well as highlighting new creations in the verbal paradigm. We will analyze the development and documentation of the verb chronologically, focusing on the following texts: first, in fifth century, Latin documents from the Iberian Peninsula, then, in early Romance annotations, in Alfonsi and Postalfonsis texts, and finally, in the classical Spanish writings in which the verb essentially appears similar the verb we have today.

verb, diachrony, Latin, Iberian Romance, Old Castilian.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The article proposes a reinterpretion of the History of Romanian Literature that I. Negoiţescu published in 1901. His work has been unanimously viewed as an aesthetic history as the author himself appears to advocate for the autonomy of the aesthetic process and the purity of art. Analysing the significance of this definition and identifying its causes (such as the refined style of his critical discourse) may support the conviction that Negoiţescu’s History is rather an ethical, ideological or even political writing. The assertion takes into account the way in which Negoiţescu interprets, analyses and evaluates the work of some major writers, such as Creangă, Slavici, and Caragiale, within the context of the political ideology of Titu Maiorescu and the Junimea circle. On the other hand, since the evaluations proposed by Negoiţescu transmit his own vision on literature and criticism, his studies dedicated to the three writers have an inherent metatextual value. It is this metatextual value of the History that reveals its political and ideological substance.

I. Negoiţescu, metatextual, literary history, aesthetic/ethical.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

It is generally acknowledged that the information following a headword in a monolingual dictionary is a matter of metalanguage, and since the information itself may be of several types, one is entitled to consider several metalanguages. Within this context, the analytical definition is a special means of making any lexical unit in its structure function metalinguistically. Since many specialists have already embraced concepts such as “metadiscourse” and “metatext”, the lexicographic (analytical) definition must be revisited, which is the scope of the present paper.

definition, dictionary, metalanguage, semiotics, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, metatext, signification, language, text.
Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” din Galaţi

Dumitru Radu Popa's Farce uses both the textual semantic strategies of parable and the covered mechanisms of the fantastic blended with the absurd to redefine society and man, which are equally contaminated by dictatorshi’s influence. The man is constantly looking for the true meaning of the ever differently narrated facts as well as of the world itself.

dictatorship, political parable, absurd farce, delation.
Universitatea Naţională „Yuriy Fedkovych” din Cernăuţi, Ucraina

The article presents the analysis of non-chunked communication (affirmative, negational, interrogative, directive, emotional, evaluative and metacommunication) that express a wide range of communicative intentions in Ukrainian-Romanian discourse, namely intentions of affirmation and negation, intentions of request and motivation, emotional and evaluative and metacommunicative intentions. The article also states that these constructions possess a distinct pragmatic nature, since they set the required tone of the dialogue, stimulate and focus the interlocutors’ attention, establish verbal contact between speakers and the act as a component of a successful communication comprising a natural part of verbal communication of both Ukrainians and Romanians.

communicative intention, speaker, non-chunked communication, affirmative-negationalinterrogative- directive-emotional-evaluative communication, metacommunication, Ukrainian-Romanian discourse.
Rodica NAGY
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

Regarded as „Keywords” in many studies of the present age, the terms speech and text do not actually represent linguistic forms for well-defined scientific concepts. Hence, some problems arise when determining the meaning of derivatives with the meta-prefix deriving from the two terms. This article assesses several points of view on the definition of the meta-text-discourse.

discourse analisys, textual linguistics, etimology, definition, meta-texte-discourse.
Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iaşi

In colloquial language, especially in spontaneous conversation, participants use specific linguistic elements, called discursive markers, which serve important functions at the level of discourse. Discursive signs are elements which, emptied of their basic meaning (they belong to different grammatical categories), gained additional values that enrich the structural organization of discourse, linking the constituent elements of a sentence, between sentences, helping to explain the position of the statement in an interpersonal dimension, highlighting the interactive structure of the conversation. Our article will analyze discursive markers at metatextual level, namely: demarcatori, focalizatori and reformulation indicators with examples from everyday conversation in both Romance languages: Italian and Romanian.

brand, speech, signal, verbal interaction.
Cătălina-Iuliana PÎNZARIU
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

Neology is a major sign of linguistic vitality; it a means of enriching the vocabulary of a language with new lexical items that greatly depend on innovation, lexical creativity and the principles and laws of derivational morphology. The large number of recently coined lexical items and the numerous neologisms that have already entered common use are the consequence of both social changes and man’s constant effort to conceptualize, decode and use them in human communication. In the present paper the term neologisms refers only to the lexical items coined in one language as the result of neology; we shall distinguish them from loanwords, which are words taken from other languages at different historical moments and undergoing various adaptations.

etymon, loanword, neologism, homonymy, synonymy.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”, Suceava

Our paper aims to emphasize the way phraseologisms – linguistic facts endowed with semantic and expressive density – have marked the cultural tradition of the Romanian language. We have analyzed the idioms, the proverbs, the locutions referring to the rites of passage (birth, marriage, death) and highlighted the advantages of their investigation and their importance in the process of transmission and value adding which contribute to configure the identity of the Romanian culture.

phraseologisms, idioms, proverbs, locutions.
“Ştefan cel Mare” University of Suceava

Linguistic change is caused by a variety of reasons that are generated by the linguistic and cultural particularity of the community of speakers. Generally, the phonological basis produces changes upon the formal unity, while the psychological one affects mainly the semantic unity. The situations in the title are metalinguistic aspects of a particular language or of different languages in contact, in which words define each other due to their formal or semantic similarity; such relationships can cause various types of linguistic changes.

analogy, complementarity, folk etymology, false friends.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”, Suceava

This paper focuses on Bible cross references as a metatext. The inductive description of their binary identity led us to a clearer distinction between text as a pragmaticsyntactic unit and metatext. Our excursus on their genesis and function zoomed in on one of the principles of Biblical hermeneutics, called the principle of analogy. The aspects of simplicity, exhaustivity, and non-contradiction [Hjelmslev 1943: 13] of the Scriptures are also inherently implied in the overall discussion of this hermeneutical principle.

text, metatext, Biblical hermeneutics, principle of analogy, clarity.
Ciprian POPA
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”, Suceava

Gestures are part of paraverbal language as means of communication between people. This type of language is based on a code that, if the interlocutors do not know it, can make communication difficult. In our article, we will compare the Italian gestures, one of the most complex, with the Romanian gestures, trying to find equivalences and highlight their peculiarities.

gestures, paraverbal language, communication, cultural stereotype, code.
Ioana-Crina COROI
Université « Ştefan cel Mare » de Suceava

This article aims to show a few discursive elements of definitions in scientific discourse, a different approach to some scientific terms. Our interest will be focused on the construction of nominal and adjectival forms in order to notice the presence of objective and subjective marks, the logic of the metalinguistic approach, the realization of the argumentation and the personal achievement in these types of discourse, even in scientific fields.

scientific discourse, objective marks, subjective marks, metalinguistic approach.
Alina-Viorela PRELIPCEAN
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

Focusing on examples drawn from Spanish contemporary novels, this paper aims to highlight the importance of some expressive resources of colloquial speech used as literary devices. Idiomatic expressions represent one of the many types of phraseological units that, even when appear as isolated constructions under syntagmatic clusters, can be significantly self-sufficient, being able to render expressivity and color to colloquial language. On the other hand, we have interrogations, one of the most expressive means of sending a particular message within the literary texts when it comes to conversational language.

colloquial language, interrogations, fixed expressions, literary devices.
Elena-Iuliana DOMUNCO
Şcoala Gimnazială Nr. 1, Suceava

The didactic discourse is the result of the coexistence of several didactic discourses (specialised, scientific, literary, and popularising) and expresses its didacticism through its pedagogical dimension. The textbook is another type of didactic discourse, a text - discourse where all the discursive-textual types are met: narration, description, dialogue, conversation, predictive, injunctive, argumentative, explicative. Considered as super-enounced textdiscourse, the textbook is a hybrid discourse as it bases its functioning on all forms of discursive genres, reflected in: scientific discourse of a subject, specialised discourse of pedagogical sciences, literary discourse of artistic texts, non-literary discourse, journalistic discourse, daily discourse. Beyond its role of social instrument, the textbook is the support material for cognitive and axiological contents. As text-discourse, the textbook has a binary structure: from structural (textual) point of view the textbook consists of a macrostructure (general aspect, exterior of the textbook) that contains the sum of all microstructures (sequence within the macrostructure, learning unit or lesson). These textual units do not appear separate, but related by signifying ties which offer coherence and cohesion to the text.

didactic discourse, textbook, text-discourse, structure, signifying ties.
Universidad de Oviedo, España / Universidad de Zúrich, Suiza, Universidad de Oviedo, España / Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Argentina, Universidad “Ştefan cel Mare” de Suceava

Our paper aims to provide an overview of the methodology for the study of the linguistic variation of the northern Romanian language using a spontaneous speech corpus. Our goal is to study phonetic, morphosyntactic and lexical phenomena from a sociolinguistic perspective. This ambitious project can serve for future sociolinguistic works regarding linguistic variation.

Moldavia, spoken language, methodology, sociolinguistics.
Andreea Ruxandra CĂPRARU
Universitatea din Bucureşti

The interaction between gender and language is constantly subjected to changes caused by successive transformations and innovations that occur in our society. Various social and political contexts will inevitably lead to new ways of communicating and understanding language. According to this dynamic, the same discourse might be interpreted in different ways according to the point of view of the person analyzing it and their inclusion within a certain social group. In the context of the highly debatable use of feminine gendered nouns in professional settings, it is particularly interesting to investigate how different categories of native Spanish speakers view and evaluate real, authentic samples of gendered discourse. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the way in which these speakers formulate their personal opinions regarding the correct formal and informal use of gendered language, their preferred manner of creating the feminine of occupational nouns from a morphological point of view, and the extent to which they accept the use of generic masculine words.

gender, language, discourse, morphology, context.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The analysis of the medical consultation as discourse and meta-discourse aims to associate the actual textual organization with the communication situation. We aim to identify the roles and means of realizing the meta-discourse, as well as the purpose of the consultation, namely the doctor-patient communication. The two fundamental dimensions of the analysis of various medical consultations, namely the discourse analysis and conversation analysis, aim to explain how consistency and sequential ordering in discourse are produced and understood.

discourse, meta-discourse, discourse laws, conversation, dialogue.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”, Suceava

The individual lament psalms have a distinct place in the Book of Psalms’ economy, through their tone and structure. As prayers born from deep sorrow, from a wandering off from the Path and a "fading of soul", the wail psalms differentiate themselves from other psalm categories, on the one hand, through tone. Born from the thirst for God, the wail and the repentance represent not only a state of penitence, but also a secret process of re-cognition, assumption, return, re-finding, at the end of which lies the metanoia and the light from which joy, reconciliation, trust and contentment emerge. As for the structure, these psalms comprise the introduction, the main body or the psalm body and the conclusion. By analyzing the Book of Psalms, one can notice that some lament psalms follow this constituent layout, while in others there are either deviations or new elements. The objective of the present paper is to analyze, comparatively, in Romanian and German, the way in which a lament psalm’s dialogism is highlighted (whose structure derives from the core structure). Furthermore, it is intended to observe the way(s) in which the dialogic relations in different translations of the psalms have been represented, both in Romanian and in German.

religious discourse, dialogism, derivative form, receiver, sender.
Marius Narcis MANOLIU
Univesitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

More than once in the teaching activity we wonder how to better approach a new problem by constructing the scaffolding of knowledge naturally but especially attractively and motivating for students. We think of methods, techniques, strategies, but all these are, after all, abstract notions for which we need to find the right attire to ensure that the subject taught is meaningful. The textbook does not always provide you with the necessary support in order to convey the new knowledge that you have planned, and then you find the help you need in the literary text. The examination of the dramatic text highlights a feature, among many others of this type of text, namely the multitude of meanings that can be interpreted, the word being accompanied by gestures, movement, mimics, intonation, etc. The play exists as written text but its writing is for staging, for acting out. The dramatic text must communicate first of all because, in a play, the actors do something; they do not only interact with each other but also with the audience. Manfred Pfister, like Austin, states that “while speaking the character does something – has an intention, a direction, is there for some reason”. In other words, the dramatic dialogue is the originator of the action, its source being a certain situation that leads to another one that arises as a result of the dramatic interaction, creates the suspense and keeps the dramatic tension. The play represents a series of inter-human relationships in a social situation, exposing the public to a set of significant stimuli from the very beginning that act on the audience’s previous experience. The playwright makes the distinction between the reading of a play and watching it. The function of the spoken language in the interaction of characters has a prevailing role. The spoken text challenges, determines the imaginative participation of the audience and conveys the situations in which the dramatic text places it. The dramatic discourse represents the bringing up to date of the language from a literary text for the purpose of being staged, of being acted out.

contexte, interaction, texte, drama, dialogue.
Doctorant Boursier « Eugen Ionescu » Université de Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

This article represents our reflection on the French language in the city of Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where we discuss how this language is perceived and spoken as an official language alongside four national languages (Swahili, Lingala Ciluba, Kikongo).The decade of political facts is a time to observe the change in French, which is very noticeable variation in the levels of lexical creativity, this lexical creativity is dominated by political ideologies that characterized daily life and aspirations of the Congolese population or Lubumbashi. This study shows that there is no unitary language: any language undergoes diversification under the influence of functional, geographic, chronological, and socio-professionals.

language, French, variation, lexical perspective.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

Language, regarded as the foundation of human culture, was analysed over time from many directions, all these aproaches giving us the opportunity to apreciate its complexity.The article is an excerpt from a larger research that is based on the analogy between language and game, since the game is the way of expresion of human nature, while being important for understanding the facts of culture. The research analyzes the game less in terms of language’s philosophy and more in terms of verbal, genuine, spontaneous interactions. Since language is not a static product, but a technique that creates new facts, this idea allows linguists to assign language the main features of the game - free activity, placed under the sign of creativity, defined by a set of rules which are applied in a given context.

linguistics, language, game, word, to create.
Patricia-Andreea RADU-BUTEREZ
Universitatea din Bucureşti

In the context of language evolution, like all the other languages, Spanish has been experiencing processes of simplification. These can be representative examples in morphology, syntax, lexicology, but they are mostly visible in phonetics and phonology, namely at the level of pronunciation. Linguistic changes have triggered among linguists the discussion on the importance of the standardized pronunciation both in communication and in teaching and learning Spanish, due to the clash between the phonological features of standard Spanish and those of the other varieties spoken in Spain. In the last years, the pronunciation of Spanish speakers has been subject to all sorts of changes, irrespective of age, gender, level of education or dialectal origin. Whether these changes are caused by the natural tendency of simplification of languages or by the interaction between different dialectal areas remains a question of interest. The present work presents examples of such changes at the level of pronunciation in the speech of native Spanish speakers from Spain.

simplification, phonetics, pronunciation, changes, speech.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The specific of the wooden language incites to analyze the manner in which the communication process is represented, fact that becomes a subsidiary intent comparing to the propagandistic or the controlling ones. The totalitarian discourse creates a specific functional perspective, that so, our study intends to analyze the way functional modalities reprezent a characteristic of the wooden language, based on the analysis of a corpus consisting in a number of fragments of politicized discourse from the epoch of Romanian communism.

verbal communication functions, totalitarian discourse, wooden language, overcoding, functional corruption.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The translation of the author’s texts involves a specific and rich linguistic mixture. The formal transfers into Romanian language, the rearrangement of the translated narrative discourse taking into consideration the literary codes and practice in our culture offers her works a local aspect. The adaptation or translation proves to be a translation means adopted for the narrative discourse. It varied in number from stylistic changes to an entire transformation of the narration, justified by the skopos. The Romanian rendition of Herta Müller’s narrative discourse makes the translated text function as an equivalent in the Romanian literary plurisystem, thus demonstrating that translation must not be regarded as an act of assimilation, but as an acknowledgement of diffrences, particularly interlinguistic and partially intercultural, taking into consideration the fact that there is no major difference between the source culture and the target culture. The exact translation of the source text would sometimes have required some erroneous versions, such as the folkloric lyrics seen in this way by the German writer who lived in Romania. The Romanian translation was donetaking into account not only the principle of language acceptance as language idioms, thus orienting the text towards the target reader.

linguistic variation, Herta Müller, German, Romanian.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

This article deals with the role of languages of specialty from the point of view of linguistics: the language of specialization in Romanian linguistics and the language of specialization in Italian linguistics, theoretical approaches, definitions and acceptances in both languages. The language of specialty is dedicated to the research on the linguistic variations in a particular domain. This approach gives particular importance to the concepts of specific/ specialty languages, sectoral languages, terminology and functional style, which is conceived as an action defined in terms of objectives and not in terms of content.

functional style, language, specialty languages, sectoral languages, terminology.
Magdalena IURESCU
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

In Romanian and Italian specialized literature, the imperfect is regarded as a relative tense that usually expresses simultaneity in the past, but can also express anteriority or futurity in the past. Its specific aspectual values (imperfect and iterative) oppose it to the other past tenses that express perfect and non-iterative values. A difference between Romanian and Italian consists in the fact that, in the indirect speech, Italian converts the present tense of the direct speech into imperfect tense, according to the temporal sequence rules; in Romanian language, during the transposition from direct speech to the indirect speech do not occur modifications of the verbal mood or tense, but only at the level of the grammatical category of person. This paper proposes a corpus research, which comprises fragments of Alessandro Manzoni’s novel, “I Promessi Spossi”, and the Romanian translation, “Logodnicii”, realized by Alexandru Balaci. The study will take into consideration the way in which the imperfect tense is translated, from the source text to Romanian language.

temporal and aspectual values, basic features, contextual features, corespondences betwen Romanian and Italian imperfect.
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”, Suceava

The present study analyses a few representatives passages from Vasile Posteucă’s novel Road boy. Our intention is to research the literary discourse in the novel from a morphological and syntactical perspective. The writer preserves the regional language brands from Bukovina, while having a predominantly popular character, characterized by picturesque language, similar to Ion Creangă.

analysis discursive, Vasile Posteucă, Bukovina, language, morphological and syntactic perspective.
Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Ukraine

From a semantic point of view, perfectivity is realized in Latin as a complex of meanings combined around the notion of limit, but different in their nature. The particular meanings of limitativity, inceptivity, completivity and punctuality are distinguished. The realization of each of them is closely related to actional semantics of predicates as well as to the context. The analysis of correlation between the particular meaning of perfectivity and actionality (resp. context) in Latin is the question under research in this article.

Latin language, perfectivity, Perfect tense, actionality, semantics.
Elena-Brânduşa STEICIUC
Université « Ştefan cel Mare » de Suceava

One of the main messages in Patrick Modiano’s work is compassion for human beings who cannot adapt or adjust to various standards, who live in fear and are most of the time excluded from what is considered to be a “normal” society. The homosexual, the Jew, the exiled are some of the most interesting figures of marginal characters in the Modianian novels (Livret de famille; Villa triste; Pour quetu ne teperdes pas dans le quartier) and our article intends to point out their main characteristics, all of them being characters who live in the shadow of anxiety and delusion.

Patrick Modiano, French literature, exclusion, Jew, homosexual, exile.
Oana Magdalena CENAC
Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” din Galaţi

With this paper, we shall debate on an intricate terminological field: polemology, a field whose target is to scientifically study conflicts, wars and every forms of aggressivity in society. The major objective of our paper aims at linguistic analysis of polemological texts in order to define the scientific field and to determine differences from other types of texts that analyze the issue of war.

polemology, conflicts, terminology, semantic field, lexicology.
Mariana BOCA
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The article is about Svetlana Aleksivici, a Belarusian writer who was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature “for her polyphonic writings”. The themes of her books are between journalism and literature because she felt that the best way to describe the horrors of the 20th century was not by creating fiction but through recording the testimonies of witnesses: “I'm searching life for observations, nuances, details. Because my interest in life is not the event as such, not war as such, not Chernobyl as such, not suicide as such. What I am interested in is what happens to the human being, what happens to it in of our time. How does man behave and react. How much of the biological man is in him, how much of the man of his time, how much man of the man.” (Voices from Big Utopia)

literature, fiction, journalism, history.
Université «Ştefan cel Mare» de Suceava

This paper focuses on an analysis of Flaubert’s work in his novel Madame Bovary, based on the author’s Correspondance during his writing. Our interest is to put face to face the author’s comments and the final result as we know it. In order to do this, we will focus on the style, on the narrative structure, on the characters and, most of all, on their discourse. The dialogues will be examined in their evaluative and auto-evaluative dimension, considering the Grice’s Logic and conversation with its fundamental principles.

discourse, meta-discourse, discourse (auto-)evaluation, discourse principles.
Universitatea din Granada, Spania

In our contemporary world, that enriches Frida Kahlo’s image as a deity, transforming her legacy into what it was called Fridamania, it seems like everything was told about the most famous Mexican woman. Part of an exhaustive study on Frida’s bodiology, the present article centers the investigation on Frida’s pictures where she writes titles, dedications, names or other word-messages complementing the pictural message.

Frida Kahlo, feminine body, bidiology, writting on pictures, words in painting.
Corina-Gabriela BĂDELIŢĂ
Universitá “Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iaşi

Almost all Italo Calvino's works from Cosmicomics onward (and occasionally some of the previous ones) are highly metanarrative, and to that he adds a series of essays in order to familiarize the readers with his literary and cultural vision. The Italian writer’s concern is not necessarily to delight his readers, but rather to educate them, to develop their critical faculties, to prepare them for the new millennium literature and, generally, to help them cope with the complexity of existence by training them for life by means of his labyrinthine narrative. He wants to combat the outward catastrophic and illogical labyrinth through writings that attempt to organize complexity without destroying it. Thus, metatexts are fundamental for Calvino ("[...] writing no longer consists in narrating but in saying that it is being told [...]" in “Cibernetica e fantasmi”, 1967: 202), because by exploring and understanding the complex mechanisms of writing, the writer himself in the first place will be able to decipher the meaning of existence and creation and he will further on share it with the reader, but not in a ready-made way, so as to challenge and develop the latter’s cognitive skills. Basically, writer and reader embark on the same knowledge adventure.

metanarrative, meta-text, initiation, writing, reading.
Beatrice LĂPĂDAT
Université Laval, Québec, Canada

This article explores the meta-discursive techniques employed throughout three dramatic texts: Crave (1998) and 4:48 Psychosis (1999) by Sarah Kane, as well as The House of Strength (2010) by Angélica Liddell. Using the concept of metadiscourse as a form of discourse through which the characters reflect upon their own speech act, we have identified in the three plays both the technical elements characteristic of meta-discourse and the aesthetic and social implications thus highlighted. Sarah Kane and Angélica Liddell confront the reader with radical characters, mostly feminine and often affected by violence. It is thus within the scope of our essay to stress how mental illness and gender or social marginalization specific of the characters in the plays create a type of meta-discourse generated by the obsessive multiplication of the dramatic voices and by the ruthless dissection of their own identities. In this context, our conceptual framework brings into focus the theories of Deleuze and Guattari (1980) related to language, as well as the notion of “poetics of love” proposed by Margaret E. Toye (2010) in order to claim the necessity of an autonomous feminine aesthetic speech, resulting from the interference of the ethical and erotic experience in a contemporary paradigm.

meta-discourse, gender identity, violence, mental illness, society.
Anca-Elena ALECSE (PUHA)
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The appearance in the eighties of a new literary paradigm determined the exegesis to find theoretical solutions in order to prevent the phenomenon which was getting a visible magnitude. Thus, various theoreticians tried to substitute the inability of relating to a new literary reality and they proposed terms, basics, concepts designed to capture as faithfully as possible the eighties phenomenon. And, this was also the case of the great academic Marin Mincu, who made all the efforts to turn a concept functional – the textualism – and to solve the need for literary theory in that age. Although the proposed concept has proved to be insufficient in order to capture the entire range of features of eighties literature, the argument that is even used by Mircea Cărtărescu in Romanian Postmodernism, the literary critic Marin Mincu has not given up to this vision, and, in his study The Romanian Poetical Experimentalism, he has proposed to apply the theory on several concrete cases. So, trying to validate the method, Marin Mincu passed through the light of his theory the work of a considerable number of eighties writers. The case of literature written by women is a particular one, because the doubt of whether or not is a form of textualism was upon it all the time, especially after the clear statements made by Nicolae Manolescu in The History of the Romanian Literature where he declares skeptical himself about the textualism of Mariana Marin’ s poetry. Therefore, the purpose of the work is to demonstrate that in the written literature of eighties women there are quadrants of textualism, but that it does not become a purpose in itself, as in the case of the written literature of men, but is only a means which the female writers put it in the service of showing the ethical principles.

the eighties, textualism, meta-textual, the poetry written by women.
Alina-Daniela HAIDĂU
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

In this article, we present the context of the feminist movement in Quebec in the 60s and 80s and the changes that show an evolution in Quebec’s society and the end of certain interdictions. Secondly, we look at the transformations of the image of women in the novel Les Nuits de l’Underground (1978), by Marie-Claire Blais, one of the most important writers of contemporary Quebec literature. The novel examines the transformations concerning the social status of women, the relationship with men, the maternal role and their relationship with children.

Quebec literature, Marie-Claire Blais, Quebec, feminism, social changes, writing.
Gabriela HECTOR
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare”din Suceava

Known as the “American Poet” who posterity claimed as a member of a free and independent nation, a democratic state centred on the divine providence, W. Whitman justifies his existence through the very metatext, writing that reflects on writing. Through this act, the providence has in store for him utility and verticality. In this paper, I focus on his poetic work seen through the interesting perspective of its relations with other texts belonging to the same author under discussion.

America, fellow, love, song, renaissance.
Universitatea din Bucureşti

The purpose of the present article is to briefly present the concept of linguistic borrowings, more exactly the terms cultism and latininism. The project studies the vocabulary used by Juan del Encina, Spanish dramatist and poet of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, from a diachronic point of view. The cultisms documented in his Cancionero will be analyzed under the phonetic, semantic and chronological aspects. The aim is to see to what extent Juan del Encina used already existing cultisms and if he introduced new ones in his work, contributing in this way to the enrichment of the Spanish vocabulary.

cultisms, linguistic borrowings, Juan del Encina, Latin, vocabulary.
Universitatea ,,Alexandru Ioan Cuza”, Iași

This article demonstrates the constant use of external metatext in The Lost Estate troughout Alain-Fournier’s correspondence. His letters to Jacques Rivière are critical comments that mark a distance between his novel and his judge’s view. Alain-Fournier’s metatext reflects the phases of his hesitant, then enthusiastic writing. In this epistolary framework, information on the stages of creations is accompanied by drafts of the novel that illustrate the author’s literary vision. Alain-Fournier’s metatext describes his poetic art centered on the desire to find an elsewhere or a beyond of the real in this life. Fournier’s aspirations explained from the fictional writing seem to anticipate Jean Burgos’ theories on the fascination of the image creator of meaning and of a new reality, operating to get the text talking about an elsewhere never lived previously, which establishes a new relation of words with things, in the sphere of the unexpected.

external metatext, litterary vision, poetic art, image, fictional writing.
Universitatea din Bucureşti

Milan Kundera, a Czech writer whose novels have been entirely translated into Romanian and published by Humanitas publishing house, represents an interesting case in terms of authorial metatext. In the collection of interviews gathered in The Art of the Novel, Milan Kundera speaks from outside of his novelistic world while making a role assumption. He describes the technique he himself, as an author and not as a mere narrator, uses to make interventions directly into the novel. Accordingly, in terms of novelistic world and building a metadiscourse, one can often notice a narrator who assumes the role of the author in Kundera’s novels. Since the author-narrator relationship has remained the subject of divergent perspectives among Kundera’s critics, our study aims at clarifying it. We take as a starting point a question raised for inquiry by the literary critic Nicolae Manolescu, which we intend to answer. We approach metadiscourse in relation to aesthetic distance and from the perspective of the art of the novel. In the end, we map the narrator’ metadiscourse by using the instruments of the cognitive approach to literature.

Milan Kundera, author, narrator, metatext, metadiscourse, aestheticdistance.
Anda-Andreea AVRAM
Universitatea ,,Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

Contemporany Romanian children’s literature is in a process of a reinvention after years during which this kind of literature was dominated by translated texts. The reinvention is present at a thematic, characterological and linguistic level. Some writers – Florin Bican, Stelian Țurlea and Mircea Cărtărescu – propose a comeback at the world of fairyttales stories, of which they take some memorable characters like Harap-Alb and comp. and zmei. The comeback, or better says the re-writing of the fairytales stories, surprises throught the courage, the contextualisation, the transposition into new situations and the reorganization after other ethic and moral principles, but also by calling on metatext and the abandonment of fantasy.

Children’s literture, fairytales, re-contextualization, metatext, abandonment of fantasy.
Elena-Alina BĂRBUŢĂ
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

This study is an analysis of the phenomenon of critical perception of Vasile Lovinescu. Our research provides the theoretical basis of critical reception; we propose a definition of this criticism criteria, topology, methods and criteria essential to the discourse of literary criticism. The first part analyzes the phenomenon of ars interpretandi regarding the multiplication and diversification of criticism. The second part offers some key access to the critical text concerning Vasile Lovinescu’s interpretation. The conclusions propose the image of the hermeneut who analyzes, explains and offers new ways of reception of the literary text. So, our research aims to examine the main characteristics of criticism and we intend to prove that Vasile Lovinescu is a hermeneut through his originals methods of interpretation.

hermeneut, aesthetic vision, mythocriticism, The Primordial Tradition, guenonism.
Daniel KIŢU
Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” din Galaţi / Colegiul Naţional „Gheorghe Munteanu Murgoci” din Brăila

This paper focuses on a theme hidden in the poetic discourse of Ana Blandiana. This is the theme of Love. The critic N. Manolescu notices the fact that Eros does not exist in the poems of Ana Blandiana. In particular, the volume October, November, December explores the theme in an euphemistic discourse that follows either the establishment of a distance from the Other or an androgynous mixture painfully felt as a metaphysical blunder. In our analysis, we shall define the book of Ana Blandiana as an anagogical type, in the sense of a permanent elevation to the spirit. In the poems of Ana Blandiana we encounter a reciprocal metamorphosis of the world and the SELF. This fertile mystery reigns and nature has a swarming animism. From this permanent oscillation love emerges dressed in the clothes of the STORGE (in ancient Greek, pure sentiment, evanescent, filial love).
We shall follow the path of the poetic treatment of the theme, especially the effects of its lethal euphemization on the blandish poetic imagination, from the pantheistic naturism to the draping of the Eros in the folds of the asatic aspiration, as a means of ontological relocation, of re-learning the motives of the world.

Eros, euphemistic, anagogical, mysteries, Storge.
Carmen-Lenuţa SVEDUNEAC
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

The present paper is a fragment of a more elaborate study focusing on Alexandru Popescu-Telega and the Iberian Space. Far from being an eulogium, this paper aims to recover Alexandru Popescu-Telega’s work: the exegesis Cervantes (1924), the first exegesis written by a Romanian author and the first exegesis included in Cervantes Studies Library from Madrid (1930) and the comparative study Cervantes and Italy.

Alexandru Popescu-Telega, Cervantes, exegeză, hispanism, Don Quijote.
Ioana-Georgiana MITITELU
Universitatea „Ştefan cel Mare” din Suceava

This paper focuses on the transformation of the letter into a metatextual space which designates names of authors, titles of texts and, on a broader level, critical perspectives and interpretative angles offered by Liviu Petrescu and Ioana Em. Petrescu in the letters they exchanged. Extremely valuable, each page of their correspondence contains at least a title or the name of an author, accompanied by the intentions and opinions the two shared, always waiting for a confirmation or a disapproval from the other. This exchange of ideas renders the migration of their thoughts toward a critical reading and transforms the space of the letter into metatext.

metatext, letter, authors, transformation.